No.82-Sweden’s Pension Architecture, Philosophy and How It Works in Practice

No.82-Sweden’s Pension Architecture, Philosophy and How It Works in Practice

2020-05-05

This paper presents the architecture of the Swedish pension system, the philosophy behind it and illustrates how it works in practice. At the foundation of the Swedish pensions landscape is the public pension commitment. It is based on the philosophy that all countries must begin with: The commitment to provide a sufficient minimum standard of living in old age for all. This is the role of the necessary pillar zero. Pillars one and two consist of mandatory universal public nonfinancial defined contribution (NDC) and a financial defined contribution (FDC) schemes. These cover the earnings of all employees and self-employed – up to a ceiling.

No.81-从理念到实践:全民基本收入研究进展

No.81-从理念到实践:全民基本收入研究进展

2020-01-29

自芬兰于2017年开启全民基本收入(UBI)实验,首次在国家层面将其由理念转化为政策以来,吸引了全球广泛关注。本文基于近年来该领域的研究进展,综述适用于UBI经济分析的一般性框架,并从主流经济理论的公平、效率与财政约束维度,来评述全球范围内的UBI实验及其经济效果,总结相关经验教训,进而讨论中国实施不同形式UBI实验的可行性。本文认为,局部UBI实验与我国现行低保政策基本相同,不充分UBI实验缺乏对低收入群体的保障能力,经典UBI实验则面临很大的财政压力,而以税收为其筹资则会进一步造成激励扭曲和效率损失。尽管如此,考虑到UBI理念在社会公平上的重大含义,寻求经济上有效率且可持续的实施方案就尤为重要,虽然我国短期内实施经典UBI方案的可行性有限,但长期内仍然值得社会各界的不断探索。

No.80-Assessing Social Welfare Effects of Government Safety-net Programs: International Comparisons

No.80-Assessing Social Welfare Effects of Government Safety-net Programs: International Comparisons

2019-11-06

This paper offers a new prospect on assessing government cash transfers using a social welfare function framework. It demonstrates how one can use social welfare functions to measures the program efficiency without specifying a poverty line and poverty measures. The paper introduces three alternative principles of targeting, which provides a basis for measuring the program efficiency. By applying the methodology developed in this paper, we compare the targeting efficiencies of 44 countries at different stages of economic development and show that governmental transfers can play a critical role in explaining the Kuznets curve.

No.79-When Poverty Reduction Meets Democracy: The Effectiveness of Dibao Using Different Evaluation Methods

No.79-When Poverty Reduction Meets Democracy: The Effectiveness of Dibao Using Different Evaluation Methods

2019-08-25

Effective targeting is crucial for the success of any social programme. Different evaluation methods may yield different results for any given social programme. This paper evaluates the minimum living standard guarantee programme (Dibao) in rural China using several methods, such as the income approach, the multi-dimensional poverty approach, and a proxy means test approach, and finds the targeting accuracy increases the more comprehensive the evaluation method. As the Dibao fund allocation is largely decided in the villagers’ meeting democratically with a holistic view, it may appear to suffer from a low level of targeting accuracy when simply using an income approach, but may in fact more accurate in alleviating real poverty. This paper argues that a democratically allocate social assistance fund may be a better way in combating real poverty in many developing countries, as it requires less administrative capacity and overcomes the difficulties of identifying the poor.

No.78-Weights for CHIP2007 and 2013

No.78-Weights for CHIP2007 and 2013

2019-08-25

This documentation introduced the idea to create the weights for CHIP2007 and 2013. The original information and final weight values are also reported.